Energía: Consumo energético

La implementación y operación de plantas de cogeneración significa disminuir el consumo de combustible para producir las mismas cantidades de electricidad y calor.

Las plantas de cogeneración se presentan como una interesante opción tecnológica que podría permitir un menor impacto ambiental y sobre todo generar ahorros económicos y energéticos por encima de un 30%.
La cogeneración es la forma más eficiente y rentable de producir simultáneamente energía eléctrica y térmica y en Latinoamérica países como Brasil, México, Colombia y Chile cuentan con plantas de cogeneración desde hace veinte años.
Lo mismo sucede con países de la Unión Europea y otros países como Estados Unidos, Reino Unido, Canadá, Japón y Australia. En todos ellos las instalaciones de cogeneración en los sectores industrial y comercial han aportado mejoras al balance energético a nivel nacional, y confiabilidad al sistema de suministro de electricidad.
José Ramos Saravia profesor del Curso Internacional de Cogeneración de la Universidad de Ingeniería & Tecnología (UTEC), explica que la implementación y operación de plantas de cogeneración significa disminuir el consumo de combustible para producir las mismas cantidades de electricidad y calor, la cual se manifiesta en la disminución en la misma proporción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.
“Del mismo modo, esta disminución contribuye a depender menos de la importación de petróleo diesel, gas natural, etc., lo que finalmente mejora el balance energético de una región o país”, agrega Ramos.
Además, refiere que en nuestro país existe un reducido grupo de profesionales especialistas en instalaciones de cogeneración por lo que sería beneficioso contar con expertos en el diseño y operación de ellas.

EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA

General Electric (GE), por medio de Distributed Power, por su parte, planea invertir US$ 1.4 milmillones en los siguientes cuatro años, en el desarrollo de equipos de fácil transportación de energía que generen energía donde se necesite.
Luis Carrillo, Presidente y CEO de GE Región Andina y El Caribe, refiere que “en GE estamos comprometidos con el desarrollo de tecnologías que posibiliten un futuro sustentable en términos energéticos”.
Una de estas soluciones novedosas es la transformación de basura residual en energía. En este sentido, GE ha hecho posible el uso de desechos para generar energía para hogares, empresas y alumbrado público. Estos equipos toman el biogás resultante de las aguas servidas y lo convierten en energía limpia y eficiente. De esta manera se permite una recuperación de energía con un impacto medioambiental positivo, al convertir desechos en energía limpia.


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